December 2, 2018


2 Sep The ASTM International (ASTM) F Subcommittee (the Subcommittee responsible for the impact attenuation test method standard F). specification for playground surfacing performance (ASTM F). The most common misconception stems from the thought that if a playground surfacing. A playground surface is the material that lies under and around swings, slides, monkey bars . The wood chips are springy enough to meet ASTM F for impact attenuation and firm enough to meet ASTM F for wheelchair access.

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It is probably a combination of all d1292 these factors. There are international standards development organizations and various advocacy groups who have conducted more recent studies that unfortunately are providing inconclusive data that lead to recommendations and conclusions that can only muddy the waters for the industry as a whole.

But in practice the grass wears away and either turns to mud in zstm weather or dries to a hard crust in dry weather. The study recommended the following:.

Generally, children need many different kinds of experiences while aatm up. Use of appropriate impact-attenuating surfacing materials in the use zone of playground equipment can reduce the risk of fall-related injury. There is only limited evidence that conformance with the requirements of this specification reduces the risk of other kinds of serious injury for example, long bone fractures. It is not easy to reveal the reliability of applying transformation equation, because adtm estimation by the standard procedure of ASTM F includes the measurement error range.

An informed consumer needs much more information to base their final decision, which goes beyond just initial cost and initial laboratory test performance. This has led to some initial studies of various surface systems by government granting agencies and an increase in requirements for procurement of surfacing systems to assure standard compliance asm protect the owner, designer, manufacturer, and installer prior to the opening of the playground.

Another is a test of the installed surface performance of playground equipment. Both ASTM F and F Standards state that conformance with the requirements of this specification will reduce the risk of serious injury and death from falls, adherence to this specification will not prevent all injuries and deaths.


I believe this debate has a significant impact on the outcomes of the ASTM F Standard in relationship to the scope of the standard. Regardless of all the improvements to impact attenuating surface systems since there has been an increase in fall related injuries primarily in arm and leg injuries. In addition, G-max became larger as the sand depth became shallower.

As shown in Fig. Articles with limited geographic scope from December Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September This tendency in the HIC is larger relative to G-max. The surfaces at the impact point were the bare ground or loose fill surface. CPSC did recognize the different relationships between G-Max and HIC and decided to utilize both measures in the development of a performance standard and test method for fall-related playground injuries.

Some types of loose fill surface are installed to attenuate the impact of fall accidents. The standard includes procedures allowing surfacing materials to be performance-rated before installation and for installed surfacing materials to be f292 for conformance with the specification.

The speed at the moment of impact is determined by drop height. ATP refers to Aliphatic Thermoplastic Polyurethane, a firm, yet flexible, plastic in which sphere-like particles are chemically bonded to a color-fast binding material.

The materials of the loose fill surface were a mixture of 0. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Is it a lack of maintenance?

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

Figure 4 shows the results of regression analysis for G-max of the standardized and shortened procedures. They include administrative phases such as obtaining permission from the caretakers of the playground.

Studies in Great Britain and Australia have stated there appears to be no conclusive evidence that surfacing systems reduce the frequency f1229 severity of injuries from falls to the surface. Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.

Playground surfacing

A project of this scope will take several years to complete and the children cannot afford for us to procrastinate any longer. Is this same installation process for the 18 inch test box specifically and strictly followed in all field installations regardless of how large?

  ASTM D5853 PDF

It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and astj the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use. The regression equations between G-max and drop height of the standardized procedures and those of the shortened procedure were compared to obtain transformation equations.

Any surface system installed within the use zone of a public playground must have a maintained critical height which exceeds the fall height of the equipment. The critical height of a surfacing system is the height in full feet below which a d1292 head injury would not be expected to occur on the surfacing system.

Similar accidents are not likely to occur without the same accident-involved playground equipment. More aatm and leg fractures are occurring on unitary surface systems versus loose-fill surface systems. Therefore the shortened procedure could be applied practically even though the accuracy declines.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

Then when the surface system is up for re-certification, all following installations would need to be consistent with the new test sample and test results of both the laboratory and in the field.

The relative risk of fatality and of different degrees of head injury may be estimated using the information in Appendix X1which shows the relationships between the Head Injury Criterion HIC scores of an impact and the probability f2192 head injury.

The results of the laboratory ASTM F test and that of the Rotational Penetrometer in the field would provide a benchmark comparison for the ongoing maintenance of performance requirements for accessibility regardless the type of surface system in question. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. The standardized procedure can estimate more exactly than the shortened procedure, however, this specification cannot prevent all injuries and deaths The coefficients of the regression equation for the HIC also decreased as the drop height increased.

When one of them reaches their respective limit, the injury has the potential to become a fatal one. Received Apr 29; Accepted Jul