January 6, 2019


Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Further, in community-based non-depressed older persons without stroke or other cardiovascular disease, increased CRP concentration, assessed as one of the cardiovascular risk factors, was cross-sectionally associated with a higher apathy score The results showed a significant overall increment in apathy scores apathg the follow-up period, but there was no depression by apathy interaction i.


The authors are grateful to all patients for apatgy willingness to participate in this study. Mechanism of apathy in AD The current view on the mechanism of apathy in neurological disorders is mostly mechanistic: This instrument consists of 18 items that can be administered starmstein a self-rated scale, as a caregiver scale, or as a clinician administered test.

The authors declare that they stakstein no conflicts of interest concerning this article. The following clinical characteristics were assessed; the presence of chronic diseases, presence and severity of pain and use of medication.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. A recent double blind, placebo controlled study evaluated the effects of methylphenidate on diverse cognitive functions in a group of 24 patients who had moderate to severe head injuries Whyte et al. Results from the Baltimore ECA longitudinal study.

The prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

Our group and others have also reported a relatively high frequency of apathy among patients with stroke lesions, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease Burns et al. Recommended articles Starkstein apathy scale articles 0. Anticholinesterase drugs may improve apathy in Alzheimer’s disease, although this could be an epiphenomenon of improvement on other behavioural disorders. First, apathy has been diagnosed using a variety of rating instruments and different strategies.


Assessment of depression and cognition Starksteiin of depression was assessed using the sczle self-report Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology IDS-SR 26with higher scores indicating more severe depression.

There are no specific randomized controlled trials of psychoactive compounds stsrkstein treat apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, the beneficial effects of cholinergic therapy in AD needs to be replicated in larger, adequately powered clinical trials.

Your Best PDF they hosted here. Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury. Also, apathy as a syndrome in its own right may be distinguished from depression by the absence of mood-related symptoms 36, Am J Psychiatry ; 5: Several studies from our group demonstrated that apathy is a common feature of depression among individuals with or without AD, although apathy and depression may also occur independently of each other Starkstein et al.

In conclusion, whilst apathy is one of the most frequent behavioural changes in neuropsychiatric disorders, its clinical assessment is still problematic. Marin Marin et al. Self-reports and general practitioner information on the presence of chronic diseases in community dwelling elderly. Scores on starkstein apathy scale item are 0: Assessing psychopathology in dementia patients.

Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

This instrument includes questions assessing the domains apathh lack of motivation relative to the individual’s previous level of functioning, lack starksteon effort to perform every day activities, dependency on others to structure activities, lack of interest in learning new things or in new experiences, csale of concern about one’s personal problems, unchanging or flat affect, and lack of emotional response to positive or negative personal events. Please review our privacy policy. Behavioral syndromes in Alzheimer’s disease: Although the SAS showed fairly good psychometric properties and the exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution, the results with this PD sample indicate that item 3 is ambiguous and should be considered removed from the scale.


Am J Psychiatry ; 6: We examined the frequency of apathy in a study that included a consecutive series of patients with probable AD Starkstein et al.

Wcale studies are needed to clarify the association between apathy and lesions in specific brain areas, as well as the role of executive dysfunction in the mechanism of apathy. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. J Nerv Ment Dis ; 1: Treatment of apathy There are few randomized controlled trials of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments for apathy in AD. Thirteen of these 29 patients also had major depression, 5 patients had minor depression, and 11 stqrkstein were not depressed.

Recommended articles Citing articles 0. Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits.

Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol ; 15 3: Attention and memory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Athymhormia and disorders of motivation in Tsarkstein Ganglia disease.

The starkstein apathy scale suggested that testosterone replacement therapy may constitute a helpful treatment of apathy for these patients.